“In Japan alone, we might say, unpredictability is being countered by treating it as a normal occurrence”
Japanese practices are founded on the belief of uncertainty. Managers cannot predict everything but if all workers have sufficient skills then this is not a problem.
Example: From an investigation of Japanese production systems.
Source: Koike, K. (1990) Aspects of excellence in Japan’s production system. Economic Eye, Vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 27-31.