The fine grained nature of hierarchies in Japanese companies means that the differences in available resources are less noticeable than in the West.
In particular, information about the organization and its performance is seldom monopolized by top management – leading to less of a motivation gap between levels.
Example: From a discussion of the applicability of transferring Japanese HRM practices abroad.
Source: Ishida, H. (1986), Transferability of Japanese human resource management abroad Human Resource Management, Vol. 25 No.1, pp.103-21.