Western leaders stand apart from the masses, Eastern leaders are part of the masses.
Japanese people choose between difficult alternatives while Westerners take an active role in deciding.
Western decisions are fixed, Eastern managers realize that their choices need to change with constantly developing events.
Passive, as opposed to overt strength is important – forcing change may just lead to resistance.
Example: From a large survey of manager attitudes in high performance Japanese companies.
Source: Pascale, R.T. (1978). Communication and decision making across cultures: Japanese and American comparisons. Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 23, No. 1, pp. 91-110.