Patterns of Creativity in Japan Lessons from Successful Japanese Companies – A Resource

‘Mikansei’ (Incompleteness)

Encouraging employees to view products as incomplete gives them freedom to become “creative ‘artists’ who are encouraged to recreate products and services in new ways.”

“Incompleteness is not seen as a sign of weakness, but as a window on future opportunities.”

Example: In the stagnant and mature 35mm SLR market in the late 70′s incremental but substantial changes such as amateur-focused cameras, automatic focus, electronics, ergonomic design, and electronic exposure pushed the industry through to greater innovativeness and growth.

Source: Tatsuno, S. (1990). Created in Japan: from imitators to world-class innovators.